Partisan groups in small divisions or large formations operate since autumn 1943 – and even more intensely after spring 1944 - especially on the hills in the North of Florence. These groups are mainly close to the Communist Party or to the Action Party.
The Patriotic Action Groups (GAP), instead, are active in the city since November 1943. These groups are formed by a few communist militants deeply-rooted in the working class areas. Bruno Fanciullacci is one of the most important leaders of the GAP.
At the beginning the partisan groups operate especially against the Social Republic police forces, but soon they are able to organize sabotage and attrition actions to the detriment of the Wehrmacht.
The GAP carry out numerous attacks against places and key personalities belonging to the occupying forces and to the Italian Social Republic such as the philosopher Giovanni Gentile.
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